Revisiting Punjab’s Transformative Journey: 1947 to 1966


  • Vikram Bhardwaj M.Phil., MA.Himachal Pradesh University, India
  • Usha Sharma MA. Punjab University, India


Partition, Independence, Demographic shifts, Integration, Political evolution, Language agitation, Reorganization


Punjab, the “Land of five rivers”, has played a major role in the history of India and had left a deep imprint on the course of Indian History. This imprint on Indian History is due to the people of Punjab, who through their courage and patriotism have carved out an important place for themselves. To understand the nature and dynamics of Punjab history in its true perspective, it is important to study the people of Punjab; their historical, cultural and religious background and their political heritage. In 1947, India got Independence from the British rule and at the same time it was partitioned on the on the basis of two nation theory. In this partition Punjab had to pay a heavy price both in term of human and territorial loss. The joy and achievement of independence for Punjab was marred by the holocaust of partition. After partition Punjab presented a very gloomy and downright dismal picture. Migration of refugees significantly altered the communal composition of Indian Punjab. It also shook the administrative, economic and political machinery of the province to its foundation and brought in its wake a host complicated problems. The division of Punjab on communal lines spread a sense of indignation and frustration among the Sikhs because the hopes of creating a Sikh State in Independent India rose by the Sikh leaders and supported by the congress and Hindu leaders had not been fulfilled. The Sikhs felt that they had been given a raw deal in the distribution of territory between the Hindus and the Muslims giving the expression to this feeling hence the demand for a Punjabi Suba was made and in its struggle for the achievement of Punjabi Suba, the Akali Dal employed a variety of strategies, due to which on 21st March 1966 reorganization of the Punjab took place and Punjab was further trifurcated.


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How to Cite

Bhardwaj , V., & Sharma, U. (2024). Revisiting Punjab’s Transformative Journey: 1947 to 1966. ESI Preprints, 25, 153. Retrieved from