Asessment of Vehicle Maintenance Culture and Its Cost Effectiveness: Case of University for Development Studies


  • Joseph Attiah Seniwoliba University for Development Studies, Tamale


Maintenance culture, cost effectiveness, vehicles, central administration, mechanics and technicians


The study assessed the maintenance culture of vehicles and the associated costs in the University for Development Studies at the Central Administration, Tamale Campus in order to provide solutions to maintenance problems facing the University with the associated high cost of maintenance. The study considered all 55 vehicles and drivers at the Central Administration used by various offices, directorates and general use (pool). However, data on 34 vehicles were available which is far more than the needed representation. Ten drivers were sampled to participate in the study using the simple random sampling approach. Face-to-face interviews with one-on-one respondents were conducted with the selected drivers. The researcher used open ended questions to gather relevant data from the respondents. The secondary data was obtained from mechanics and
technicians who had presented their bills for payment at the Transport Office. Both the qualitative and quantitative methods were used in analyzing the data collected. The Grounded Theory and excel sheets were employed for the data analysis. The study revealed that that the poor maintenance culture is as a result of poor funding, delay in the release of funds for maintenance, inflation of the cost of spare parts, design errors, use of sub-standard materials, age of vehicles, insufficient knowledge and skills of mechanics and technicians were factors identified as those contributing to problems of effective maintenance culture. It is therefore recommended that a formalized maintenance department should be established with well qualified and experienced personnel with practical knowledge and skills in vehicle maintenance and with a well-equipped workshop with the necessary tools and spare parts. This will allow fast and quick response to vehicle maintenance issues.



Adeniyi, A.A., Ilori, M.O. & Sanni, S.A. (2004). Evaluating

strategies of maintenance management in selected manufacturing

industries in Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Engineering Management. 5,


Adeleye SI (2009) “Maintenance Practice in Nigeria, Policy,

Budgeting and Legislative Issues”. A paper presented at

“Sensitization Campaign or Maintenance Culture” Organized by

National Orientation Agency, Oyo State Directorate, Ibadan.

Ajibola JK (2009). “Maintenance Culture in Nigeria; Problems and

Challenges” A paper presented at “Sensitization Campaign or

Maintenance Culture” Organized by National Orientation Agency,

Oyo State Directorate, Ibadan.

Al-Najjar, B. (2007), “The lack of maintenance and not maintenance

which costs: A model to describe and quantify the impact of

vibration-based maintenance on company’s business”, International

Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 107 No. 1, pp. 260–273.

Al-Najjar, B. (2007). The lack of maintenance and not maintenance

which cost: a model to describe and quantity the impact of

vibration-based maintenance on company business. International

Journal of Production Economics no. 107, pp 260-273

Alsyouf, I. (2004). Cost Effective Maintenance for Competitive

Advantage, Intellecta Docusys, Goteborg, Sweden.

Bolaji, B. O., & Adejuyigbe, S. B. (2012). Evaluation of Maintenance

Culture in Manufacturing Industries in Akure Metropolitan of

Nigeria. Journal of Information Engineering and Applications, 2(3),


Bowers (2005). National School Boards Association, The Why and

How of Maintenance. American School Board Journal, June 2005.

Edited by Naomi Dillon.

Brendan, J.S. (2006). Optimising the Maintenance Function - It‟s

Just as Much About the People as the Technical Solution, WCEAM

, Paper Number 095.

British Standard Institution (BS 3811) (1984). Glossary of general

terms used in maintenance organisations. Blackwell Science Ltd,

Oxford. U.K.

Cabahug, R. R., Edwards, D. J., & Nicholas, J. (2004). Classifying

plant operator maintenance proficiency: examining personal

variables. Building Research & Information, 32(2), 119-127.

Central Bank of Nigeria (2003). Highway Maintenance in Nigeria:

Lessons from other countries, Central Bank of Nigeria April 2003.

Research Department Occasional p. 27.

Chanter, B. and Swallow, P. (2007). Building Maintenance

Management . Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Chiang, L.H., Russell, E.L. & Braatz, R.D. (2001). Fault Detection &

Diagnosis in Industrial System. Springer Publisher.

Choudhary, V. & Vithayathil, J. (2013). The Impact of Cloud

Computing: Should the IT Department be Organized as Cost Centre

or a Profit Center? Journal of Management Information Systems, 30,


Creswell, J. W. (2007). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative,

and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Díaz-Cabrera, D., Hernández-Fernaud, E., & Isla-Díaz, R. (2007). An

evaluation of a new instrument to measure organisational safety

culture values and practices. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(6),

-1211. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2007.03.005>.

Eti MC, Ogoji SOT, Probert D (2006). Strategic Maintenance

Management in Nigerian Industries in Applied Energy.

http://hd/ 83(3): 211-227.

Eti, M.C., Ogaji, S.O.T & Probert S.D (2004). Impact of corporate

culture on plant maintenance in the Nigerian electric-power industry.

Applied Energy, Vol. 83, No. 4, pp. 299-310.

Igboanugo, A.C. & Aigbe, S.O. (2003). A markovian study of

maintenance practice in production firm: a case study. Nigeria

Journal of Industrial and System Studies, Vol. 2, No.1, pp. 1-7.

Jonsson, P. (2008). Logistics and supply chain management.

Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Kans, M., & Galar, D. (2017). The Impact of Maintenance 4.0 and

Big Data Analytics within Strategic Asset Management. In

Maintenance Performance and Measurement and Management 2016

(MPMM 2016). November 28, Luleå, Sweden (pp. 96-104). Luleå

tekniska universitet.

Kportufe, S. G. (2015). Lack of Maintenance Culture of Public

Buildings in the Capital City of Ghana- Accra. Journal of Culture,

Society and Development. An International Peer-reviewed Journal.

Vol.12, 2015. P 94 – 103.

Mark C. E., Ogaji, S. O. T & Probert, S. D. (2006). Strategic

maintenance management in Nigerian industries,Journal Applied

Energy, 83(3), 211-277.

Mkilania, J. N. (2016). Factors Affecting Best Maintenance Practice

In Tanzania Public Sector. International Journal of Mechanical

Engineering and Technology, 7(3), 2016, pp. 139–149.


Mobley R. K. (2002). An Introduction to Predictive Maintenance.

nd Ed. Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.

Mong, G. S.,1* Mohamed2, F. S. and Misnan, S. M.3 (2018).

Maintenance Management Model: a n Identification of Key Elements

for Value Based Maintenance Management by Local Authority.

International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7 (3.25) (2018)


Okoro, C. K. and Anichebe, O. (2020). Maintenance Culture and

Sustainable Development in Africa. International Journal of

Management, Social Sciences, Peace and Conflict Studies

(IJMSSPCS), Vol.3 No.4 December, 2020; p.g. 79 – 84.

Omotehinshe, O. J., Dabara, I. D. & Guyimu, J. (2015a). Design

Inadequacies and the Maintenance of University Buildings in Ile Ife,

Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 5(2), 175-187.

Available online at

Onohaebi, O.S. & Lawal, Y.O (2010). Poor Maintenance Culture;

(the Bane to Electric Power Generation in Nigeria), Journal of

Economics and Engineering, ISSN: 2078-0346.

Orikpe, E. A. (1994). Maintenance Culture and Instructional

Materials Utilisation in Vocational Technical Education. Paper

presented at the Vocational Technical Education and Technology

Growth, University of Nigeria Nsukka.

Otoo, A. and Transport, S. (2018). Challenges of Vehicle Fleet

Management and Control in the University of Education, Winneba,

Ghana. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced

Technology Studies. Vol.6, No.1, pp.1-15.

Quatrini, E*., Costantino, F., Di Gravio, G. and Patriarca, R. (2020).

Condition-Based Maintenance—An Extensive Literature Review.

Machines 2020, 8, 31; pg 1-28 doi:10.3390/machines8020031.

Pint, E. M., Pelled-Colabella, L., Adams, J. L. and Sleep, S. (2008).

Improving Recapitalization Planning - Toward a Fleet Management

Model for the High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, Rand

Corporation, USA, ISBN 978-0-8330-4174-6.

Selin, D. & Mahasin, Z. (2016). Analyzing the Value of Vehicle

Maintenance Activities, Division of Supply and Operation

Management; Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sverige

, Report No. E 2016:036.

Sharma, C. & Bahadoorsingh, S. (2005). Power generator

maintenance scheduler. The Journal of the Association of

Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp.


Sodiki,J.I. (2001).Planning for manpowe employment

for scheduled maintenance work in Nigeria

industries, Nigerian Journal of Engineering

Management, 2 (2): 5-8.

Telang, A.D & Telang, A. (2010). Comprehensive Maintenance

Management, (Policies, Strategies and Options). PHI Learning, New

Delhi, Private Limited.

Tijani, S. A., Adeyemi, A. O., & Omotehinshe, O. J. (2016). Lack of

Maintenance Culture in Nigeria: The Bane of National Development.

Civil and Environmental Research, 8(8), 23-30.

Thoben, K.-D., Wiesner, S. & Wuest, T. (2017). “Industrie 4.0” and

Smart Manufacturing – A Review of Research Issues and Application

Examples. Internantional Journal of Automation Technology, 11(1),


Tijani, S. A., Adeyemi, A. O1.* Omotehinshe, O. J.2 (2016). Lack of

Maintenance Culture in Nigeria: The Bane of National Development.

International Institute for Science, Technology and Education

(IISTE). Vol.8, No.8, 2016, p 23 -30.

Tubis, A. and Werninska-Wojciechowska, S. (2015). Concept of

Controlling for Maintenance Management Performance: A Case

Study of Passenger Transportation Company. Safety and Reliability

of Complex Engineered Systems. Podofillini et. al (Eds). Taylor and

Francis Group, London. p 1055 – 1063.

UDS Statutes (2017). University for Development Studies Statutes

January 2017

UDS Transport Policy (2018). University for Development Studies

Revised Transport Policy, July 2018.

Uforo, A. E., Malachi, U. U. and Don, B. (2022). Maintenance

Management and Organizational Performance in Selected

Manufacturing Firms, Akwa Ibom State, International Journal of

Business and Management Review, Vol.10, No.4, pp.37-59.

United Nations Industrial Development Organisation’s Report

(2016). The Role of Technology and Innovation in Inclusive and

Sustainable Industrial Development. Vienna.

Vilarinhoa, S., Lopesa, I. and Oliveiraa, J. A. (2017). Preventive

maintenance decisions through maintenance optimization models: a

case study. 2017;11(June):1170–7.

Wilson A. (2002). Asset maintenance management, New York,

Industrial Press.

World Bank (1995). World Development Report 1995: Infrastructure

for Development – World Development Indicators, World Bank.

Wordsworth, P. (2001). Lee’s Building Maintenance Management

(4th ed). Oxford, Blackwell Science.

Yin, R.K. (2013). Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 5th

ed., Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.